Approaches for measuring cumulative childhood adversity: A study of youth from 5 sub-Saharan African countries

As part of a Child Abuse and Neglect Journal special issue on Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), this study uses VACS data from Lesotho, Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Namibia, and Mozambique to assess approaches to quantifying cumulative childhood adversity (CCA) resulting from four types of ACEs exposure: physical, sexual, and emotional violence; witnessing interparental violence; witnessing community violence; orphanhood.

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Child abuse neglect journal